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Any Charges Reported on this blog are Merely Accusations and the Defendants are Presumed Innocent Unless and Until Proven Guilty, through the courts.

February 21, 2013

Anti-Psychotic Use in Nursing Homes: Geographic Variation and Off-Label Use



by JOHN DAVY
FEBRUARY 19, 2013

A research letter in the Journal of the American Medical Association provides updated information on the use of antipsychotic medications in nursing homes in the United States. The findings, based on data collected in 2009 and 2010 from a large long-term care pharmacy that serves about one-half of US nursing home residents, identify the proportion of residents in each state (excluding Alaska, Hawaii, and North Dakota, which lacked sufficient data) who were prescribed at least one antipsychotic drug.

States with the highest rates of antipsychotic use were located mainly in the central and southern continental US (where approximately 28 percent of residents were prescribed at least one antipsychotic drug), while the states with the lowest rates of antipsychotic use (closer to 17 percent) were mostly located in the west. Just 7.5 percent of residents included in the study received only one antipsychotic drug. The median number of prescriptions was 10, usually administered for a period of 30 to 77 days.

Overall, 22 percent of nursing home residents in the study were prescribed at least one antipsychotic drug during the observation period. This suggests that rates of antipsychotic use in nursing homes may be closer to the low end of earlier estimates. However, high geographic variation in prescribing and the high rate of off-label use for symptoms related to dementia suggest that there is no consistent, evidence-based approach to antipsychotic prescriptions in US nursing homes.



SOURCE:     AGEING IN ACTION
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Ageing, Discrimination and Inequalities in the Post-2015 Agenda


Posted By Portia Reyes
18 February 2013

Placing equality at the heart of the post-2015 development agenda is in focus this week as experts, civil society organisations, UN leaders, and Member States meet for the consultation on addressing inequalities in Copenhagen on 18-19 February.
Discussions will focus on the synthesis report of the results of the global public consultation held between September 2012 and January 2013. It's an important one, as the recommendations from this meeting will feed into the formulation of the future development goals.
It is encouraging that alongside the submissions on a wide range of issues - for example, on economic growth, gender, or young people - the synthesis report includes issues relating to older people - informed by two submissions that HelpAge had contributed to.
This is especially significant to bring attention to the large andgrowing numbers of older people globally who are highly vulnerable to discrimination, neglect, and isolation.

Discrimination on the basis of age
Older people experience inequality in economic, political, environmental, or social domains. As noted in the synthesis report, these inequalities are reinforced by the discrimination older people face based on their age.
The report draws attention to some main issues, including that older people are perceived to be independent and no longer capable. As a result, they are denied equal access to health services, property rights, decent work, and livelihood opportunities. Similarly, older people living with disabilitiesexperience "double discrimination relating to their age and disability status". And, as gender-based discrimination is intensified in older age, older women become more vulnerable to abuse and violation of human rights.

A goal to eliminate discrimination
A clear message emerging from the synthesis report is that key to tackling inequalities is addressing its structural causes - such as discrimination.
Therefore, the report rightly recommends that an inequalities goal "should aim to eliminate all forms of discrimination and achieve gender equality". This goal includes, among others, a target for state accountability to ensure access to basic services for excluded groups, including older people.
There is more work to be done, however, on ensuring that other recommendations - for example, on growth and unemployment, governance, and environmental sustainability - include all disadvantaged people.
HelpAge has also recommended that particularly important is a goal on disaggregation of data by age and sex, as well as disability; and a goal on delivering the universal adoption of social protection floors to guarantee income security across the life course.
Regardless, the synthesis report reflects clearly that "the rights and needs of highly disadvantaged and excluded individuals, families, and groups" - including older people - should be prioritised in actions towards a new development agenda.

SOURCE:     HELPAGE

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February 13, 2013

Elder Abuse - A Very Serious Topic


By Betsy Cross/Daily News Correspondent
GateHouse News Service
Feb 12, 2013

Elder abuse is not an easy subject to talk about. There’s no easy way to bring it up in conversation and usually there’s a lot of head-shaking, sighing and low tones while it’s being discussed. It’s a serious subject that most people don’t know much about, let alone think they can do anything to help.
More than half a million reports of elder abuse are documented every year, and experts agree that millions more go unreported.
"Elders are vulnerable as they become physically frail," says Pam Fishman, LSW, CHPSW, with the Natick Visiting Nurse Association. "They are often physically, financially and emotionally dependent on others." Abuse doesn’t always leave a bruise either.

 Elder abuse can take many forms:
- Physical abuse is when someone uses force against an elder that results in pain, injury or impairment. This can include the using drugs, restraints or confinement to control an elder as well.
- When an elder is intimidated, humiliated or made the scapegoat on a regular basis, it is considered Emotional Abuse. Elders may also be ignored or isolated from friends or activities.
- Sexual abuse is any form of sexual contact with an elder, including physical or visual, without that person’s consent.
- The most common type of elder abuse is neglect. Whether intentional or not, failure to properly care for a person you have agreed to care for constitutes neglect.
- Financial exploitation is also very common. Caregivers who misuse an elder’s checks or credit cards, steal cash or household goods or forge the elder’s signature are guilty of abuse.
So what can we all do to help protect vulnerable elders? "You may meet your neighbor at the mailbox and notice that she has a bruise on her arm or that her house is falling into disrepair. Ask questions and try to notice if she is acting differently than she normally does. If she’s usually cheerful and friendly, but is hurrying back into the house, that may be a sign that something more is going on," advises Fishman. The elder may even be neglecting their own care. For a variety of reasons, they just can’t seem to care for themselves effectively.
Offer to help. Perhaps it’s as simple as the elder’s caregiver needs a break. You could drive the elder to doctor’s appointments or run a few errands.
However, if you suspect something more serious is going on, contact your local elder abuse hotline or Adult Protective Services. In the MetroWest area, Springwell is the agency designated for handling elder abuse claims and can be reached at  617-926-4100. The Massachusetts Elder Abuse Hotline is  1-800-922-2275.
Elder Abuse is a very serious topic and it’s vital that we all know the signs and what to do if we think an elder is being abused.
Betsy Cross is Director of Development for the Natick Visiting Nurse Association, a not-for-profit health care organization providing home care to thousands of people throughout MetroWest each year. For more information, call the Natick VNA at  508-653-3081


SOURCE:      The MetroWest Daily News
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Sacramento Elder-Care Facility Operator Faces Manslaughter Charge


By Marjie Lundstrom
February 12, 2013

The operator of a Sacramento elder-care facility is facing felony charges, including manslaughter, in the gruesome death last year of an 88-year-old resident.
Silvia Cata, 52, owner of Super Home Care on Bowman Avenue, was arrested Monday evening at her home near Northgate Boulevard and West El Camino Avenue, according to the state attorney general's office.
She faces felony charges of elder abuse and involuntary manslaughter in what is believed to be the first-of-its-kind criminal prosecution in California involving an elder-care provider.
Deputy Attorney General Steve Muni, a veteran prosecutor with the AG's Bureau of Medi-Cal Fraud and Elder Abuse, said he believes this is the first time the Department of Justice has pursued a manslaughter case against a caregiver in connection with an elderly resident's death.
Georgia Holzmeister, 88, who suffered from dementia and lived at Super Home Care since 2007, died last June after suffering massive, foul-smelling bedsores at the home. The sores on her buttocks resulted in sepsis, a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body develops a severe, toxic response to bacteria or other germs.
An emergency room doctor at Sutter General Hospital told investigators that the woman's Stage 4 pressure sores were among "the worst he has ever seen," according to documents filed by the attorney general in Sacramento Superior Court.
While criminal prosecutions of elder abuse declined precipitously while Gov. Jerry Brown was attorney general, the office announced plans last year to step up its efforts to build criminal cases statewide.
In California and other states, criminal prosecutions of nursing home workers - or operators of smaller care facilities, such as Cata's - have been relatively rare, with allegations of abuse or neglect frequently handled in the civil courts.
"We know abuse of our elders is becoming more pervasive, so we must become more resolute in our protection of them," Attorney General Kamala D. Harris said last year, in announcing the new initiative.
AG's spokeswoman Lynda Gledhill said Monday's arrest is part of that effort to hold caregivers criminally liable for abuse and neglect in their facilities.
Cata is being held in the Sacramento County Jail in lieu of $300,000 bail.
If convicted, Cata faces up to 12 years in prison on the elder abuse charge, which include two special allegations that the victim suffered great bodily injury, and that the abuse caused her death, Muni said.
A conviction of involuntary manslaughter carries a maximum term of four years.
Cata was first licensed by the state in 1996 to operate the residential care facility for the elderly, near West El Camino Avenue and Northgate Boulevard. She is licensed to care for up to six residents, but she told investigators she "normally maintains about two to three residents at one time," according to court documents.
Cata, her husband and her daughter were the facility's sole providers, the documents state.
In the last six years, Cata has had a series of run-in with state licensing officials. Among other things, she has been cited for alleged "poor record-keeping," dispensing over-the-counter medications without a doctor's order and attempting to care for at least one resident who should have been admitted to a skilled nursing facility instead.
Holzmeister's family had been paying Cata $2,800 a month to care for the woman, an amount later reduced to $2,000 when the family discovered she had been moved in with a roommate, documents show.

SOURCE:        The SacBee Blog

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February 11, 2013

Elder Abuse - Society's Hushed Secret


By Jerry Davich
February 7, 2013

The frail 65-year-old woman cowered in a corner of a bedroom. Her lips quivered. Her eyes welled with tears.
When Portage police arrived at her home last Sunday night, she was noticeably frightened and intimidated by the other person in the bedroom. It wasn’t a thief. It wasn’t a rapist. It wasn’t even a stranger.
It was her 38-year-old daughter, Lisa Arend, who angrily paced back and forth near her mother when police arrived, according to an incredibly detailed and eye-opening police report.
“As I attempted to speak with Ms. Arend about what was going on, she began yelling various profanities and immediately displayed an uncooperative and aggressive attitude,” wrote the responding police officer in a lengthy narrative.
Arend, who was unmoved by police presence, allegedly blocked the doorway with her legs to prevent her mother from talking alone with an officer in another room of the Portage home. Another officer tried to talk with Arend, but she would have none of it, the report states.
Police were called by a friend of Arend’s who was temporarily staying at the home, along with her husband and the couple’s two children, a 7-year-old and a 7-month-old. While the couple prepared to leave the home during an altercation between Arend and her mother, Arend allegedly told them,
The mother, who I’m not naming to protect her identity, told police her daughter had just returned from a Lake Station bar and that she wanted more money from her. The mother and Arend’s friend told police that Arend was drunk and also high, possibly on prescription meds. A recently used crack pipe was later found in the bathroom, police say.
Arend’s friend told police she witnessed Arend punching her own mother with a closed fist, and Arend attempted to strangle her with a twisted sweatshirt. Arend also used her mother’s metal “reaching aid” to spear her in the upper chest, police said.
Arend also gave police a fight during her arrest. Backups were called. They warned her of being shot by a stun gun. It didn’t stop her, so police used the stun gun to apply handcuffs on her wrists and legs. She still resisted and later spit on them in the squad car, the report states.
Back inside the house, her mother was still fearful for obvious reasons.
“She expressed tearful concern with Ms. Arend’s inevitable release from jail and her returning to the residence,” the officer wrote.
Arend was charged with multiple offenses, including battery, intimidation, battery to household member with a child present, disorderly conduct, and battery to law enforcement.
Three 10-day protection orders were issued against Arend by police to help protect her mother. But, as we all know, there are long odds this volatile mother-daughter reunion will be stopped as time goes on.


SOURCE:      PostTrib SunTimes
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Family Speaks Out After Mother Becomes Victim of Elder Abuse


Feb. 7, 2013
By Kerry Kavanaugh

DULUTH, Ga. —
A local family is speaking out after their elderly mother lost her home and all her money, but died before the case ever went to trial.

The woman's son has been in the Gwinnett County Jail for nearly two years, accused of stealing nearly $400,000.
"She was devastated. She could not understand why she had to leave her home," Nan Roberts told Channel 2's Kerry Kavanaugh. Roberts said her mother-in-law suffered through her final days.

"She was terrorized," Fred Roberts said about his mother, Phyllis Roberts.
Duluth police said Phyllis Roberts was financially wiped out by another of her sons, Steven Lee Roberts.
Investigators said Steven Lee Roberts gave himself power of attorney, took close to $400,000 and took off to California.
"She never could comprehend that the money was gone," Nan Roberts said.

The family said she saved her entire life to afford the care required to die at home. She passed away in a nursing home.
"She kept asking, 'What's happening with my property? Can I go home? Is the money coming back?' I always had to put her at bay and say, 'Well, we're working on it,'" said Fred Roberts.
Nearly two years later, the family said delays have kept the case out of court.

Pat King of Georgia's Department of Human Services said her agency is working to change that.

"It's not that unusual a case," King said. "We are doing everything that we can to empower those who respond to the 911 calls and subsequently that will handle these cases."

Kavanaugh found DHS employees speaking to community care providers in Atlanta Thursday. They primarily train first responders and prosecutors on how to identify and promptly investigate elder abuse.

"A lot of them have had their eyes open to what these crimes really look like and how devastating it is for the individual themselves," King said.

"They should be a high priority at this stage of their lives. They worked their whole life and saved their whole lives, [and] someone comes along and takes it," Nan Roberts said.

Kavanaugh spoke to Steven Roberts' defense attorney. She said there has been no deliberate intention to stall the case and said cases cannot be rushed.

At this point, she claims they are ready to go to trial. They are just waiting on a date.


SOURCE:       WSBTV
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Attorney Disbarred, Ripped Off Elderly Client


By Greg Moran
FEB. 1, 2013

An Escondido attorney has agreed to be disbarred after admitting she stole $275,000 from an elderly client’s inheritance, then repeatedly lied and created fake records to try to cover up the theft.
Sydney Claire Kirkland also faces criminal charges of grand theft and stealing from an elderly adult, according to the State Bar of California, the agency that regulates the state’s lawyers.
Kirkland drained all but $10,000 from a trust account set up by 80-year-old Grover Gordon Jr., a client of hers. He had inherited $285,730 from his longtime friend and housemate, Jeanette Letman, when she died in January 2011.
Gordon put the money in a client trust account with Kirkland, who had previously done legal work for him and Letman and was a co-trustee of the estate.
The state bar said that over the next 11 months Kirkland siphoned out $275,642 from the account.
Not all of it has been accounted for, but the bar said $23,000 was used to help buy an Audi for Kirkland, and other amounts were transferred to her husband and others.
In June 2011, the county’s Adult Protective Services got involved after receiving a complaint from a bank manager. When questioned, Kirkland told the agency that the money was invested in two certificates of deposit and an unnamed investment fund — all of which was fiction.
Gordon later hired another attorney who sued to get Kirkland removed as co-trustee of the estate. During that process, Kirkland created a fake account statement for the trust, showing that all of the money was there. Even after she was removed as co-trustee, she continued to drain money, the bar said.
Kirkland, a lawyer since 2001, became ineligible to practice law Jan. 19.


SOURCE:      UT SanDiego
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February 5, 2013

Elder Abuse Signs and Resources


BY LINDSAY MCCOY
2/1/2013
Times Bulletin News Writer

VAN WERT

Elder abuse is a problem often overlooked in today's society, and it is
 important that senior citizens know that there are resources available to them in these cases.
Van Wert Council on Aging Executive Director Kevin Matthews wants locals to know
that help can be found in Van Wert.

"Abuse of the elderly is an area where society is having a lot of problems," said Matthews. "Many seniors have come to a point where they have become powerless, have no financial resources, are dependent on someone else for their daily needs, and have become extra susceptible to abuse. These individuals can be trapped in these situations for long periods of time before anyone notices."

Unfortunately much of the abuse seen to the elderly comes from their own family members and caregivers through deprivation. Matthews noted that people tend to victimize those who are the easiest targets; someone easy to control and dominate. Caregivers often control all conversation leaving these aging victims with little or no say in their own care or lives. Caregivers may also neglect their everyday needs such as food and hygiene. The sad fact is that while such cases are widely reported, many additional cases often go unseen leaving people to suffer without outside help.

"2013 marks the first year in history that people over the age of 60 will be greater in number than those under the age of five," noted Matthews. "As the senior population grows, the chance for abuse also increases and people need to be made more aware of the issue at hand."

Van Wert offers its own services to the older generation of citizens in need. Those who are suffering from elder abuse or may be suspicious of such an incident can contact a handful of local organizations. Van Wert County Victim Services at 118 E. Main St. in the County Annex is one such place and can be contacted at (419)239-9800. Victim Services not only helps victims with the criminal justice process but also helps with rehabilitation and returning to a normal level of functioning. Van Wert County Job and Family Services is another agency that can work with seniors suffering from abuse. Job and Family Services is located at 114 E. Main St. and can be contacted at (419) 238-5430. Reports can also be given to the Van Wert Council on Aging (COA) who works closely with law enforcement to stop abuse crimes from continuing. COA is located at 220 Fox Rd. and can be reached at (419) 238-5011.

Elder abuse can be stopped at an early stage if those in contact with the victim look closely at warning signs. Physical signs of abuse are often the first to be noticed in such cases. Bruising, extreme weight loss, and lack of proper hygiene care are often sign of abuse to the dependent. A tell-tale sign that is often overlooked is mood change. Those being abused will often withdraw from the outside world and can lose interest in the things they enjoy most.

Matthews urges people to watch for warning signs in the older loved-ones in and around their lives. If a family member is the instigator of abuse, it takes an outside force to rescue the victim from these unnecessary conditions


SOURCE:       The Times Bulletin
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San Juan Man Charged with Elder Abuse for 3rd Time in 3 Years


San Juan Man Charged with Elder Abuse for 3rd Time in 3 Years
JANUARY 30, 2013
BY STAFF
 Brian Park

A man from one of San Juan Capistrano’s historic families pleaded not guilty Monday to two felony counts of elder abuse and one felony count of discouraging a witness—the third such incident in less than three years.
Declan Paul Nieblas, whose family ancestry predates Mission San Juan Capistrano, is charged with inflicting injury on an elder, false imprisonment of an elder or dependent adult by violence and dissuading a witness by force, according to court documents.
Pretrial for the case has been scheduled for February 5, followed by a preliminary hearing February 7 at Harbor Justice Center in Newport Beach. Nieblas is being held on $65,000 bail in Central Men’s Jail in Santa Ana, according to Orange County Sheriff’s arrest records.
Nieblas was arrested January 24 after sheriff’s deputies responded to a grand theft report at Seasons Senior Apartments, located at 31641 Rancho Viejo Road. According to court records, the violations occurred two days earlier.
In June 2012, Nieblas pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor for violating a protective/stay away order. Two other misdemeanor charges—one for elder abuse and another for disobeying a domestic relations court order—were dismissed.
Nieblas received three years of informal probation, which was revoked in his most recent case. A probation hearing has been set for February 5.
The 2012 incident also violated a previous three-year informal probation Nieblas was dealt in May 2010, when he pleaded guilty to two misdemeanor counts of inflicting injury on an elder and for damaging a wireless device to prevent notifying law enforcement. Nieblas was also given 90 days in jail.

SOURCE:     The CapistranoDispatch

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Taking Advantage: Elder financial Abuse on the Rise



In November 2011, police announced a 33-year-old Markham man had been arrested in connection with a fraud investigation. Employed as a personal live-in caregiver, he was accused of defrauding an 84-year-old man who has Alzheimer’s disease. In just under a year of employment, he is alleged to have stolen more than $100,000 from his charge by accessing the man’s bank accounts. Police believe there may be more victims.

Barbara Schuh, director of field operations at Home Care Assistance, has over 15 years experience working as a geriatric care manager and home care provider. She first wrote about the topic of elder financial abuse five years ago. Like the police and others who work closely with seniors, she has seen an alarming increase in the number of cases like this. She points to a study done by MetLife in the United States that revealed in 2010 alone $2.9 million was taken from older adults.

More incidents and allegations are coming before the courts here in Ontario. In Oshawa, a woman in her 60s is serving a sentence for defrauding her mother, a crime she was convicted of in 2009. As her mother’s power of attorney, the woman robbed her, an Alzheimer’s patient, of $92,000.

In Ottawa, the police department has a dedicated elder abuse unit and between 2005 and 2010 it conducted 680 investigations. Sixty-two per cent of these involved allegations of financial abuse.
In Toronto, the ombudsman for banking services and investments, an organization that resolves disputes between banking and investment firms, investigated a case where a son convinced his mother to set up a line of credit against her house. After $90,000 disappeared, the woman could no longer make payments and her home was put up for sale.
Elder financial abuse is often a hidden crime that isn’t talked about or reported. According to the Ontario Seniors’ Secretariat, the signs can be difficult to recognize. Rather than a single event, it often takes the form of a pattern that happens over time. While it’s the most common form of elder abuse in Canada, physical and emotional abuse may occur at the same time.
Financial abuse is defined as the illegal or unauthorized use of someone else’s money or property. It includes pressuring, forcing or tricking someone into giving away money, property or possessions.
In the majority of cases, abusers have a close connection to the victim and exploit this connection. Family members, friends, neighbours and caregivers are often the ones committing these crimes.
Staff at the seniors’ secretariat want everyone to understand elder abuse, recognize the signs and know how to prevent it.
The following strategies can help:

1. Be cautious
Be wary of friends, family or caregivers who express unusual interest in your financial affairs. That said, you should have one trusted family member or friend to whom you can disclose financial matters. This person can help spot any potential abuse.

2. Check and double-check
Verify that people are who they say they are. Make sure any charities or companies that contact you are legitimate. If someone comes to your door, ask for and check identification. You can also call the company or charity to make sure it has representatives currently canvassing your community.
Request written information and check references. Get a second or third quote or estimate before committing to a service or purchase. If you’re looking to hire a private caregiver or companion for a senior, get a police background check.
Closely monitor the financial accounts of elderly or vulnerable family members.

3. Don’t be rushed into making a decision
Take your time. Put an end to high-pressure sales pitches at your door by refusing to commit to anything. Insist on doing your own research in your own good time. Anyone who comes to your home pitching a product or service can leave promotional material behind for you to review at your leisure.
If a company or service provider asks for money up front, consider it a red flag. A reputable company will not require this.

 4. Don’t let strangers into your home
Salespeople may appear friendly and knowledgeable and offer enticing home repairs or other services to gain access to your home. Do not allow this. As a policy, simply refuse entry.
If you have a home repair or service person working in your home, do not leave them in your house alone.
If you enter into a contract, provincial laws exist to help protect you. For example, in Ontario, if you have already signed a contract, you have 10 days during which you can cancel it.

5. Remember nothing is free
Throw away or, better yet, shred any sweepstakes cheques that arrive in the mail. Never send money to receive a “free” prize or vacation. Don’t fall prey to lottery ticket scams that promise big future payouts. If something seems too good to be true, it usually is.
Also ignore promises of easy credit or loans. Many of these require you to pay a fee before you receive the funds. This is illegal in Ontario and should be reported immediately.

6. Track your money
Keep a close eye on your bank and credit card statements. Report any discrepancies immediately. Track account balances closely, know how much you have and how much you’ve recently spent at all times. This will make it easier to notice any irregularities. Make note of any money you give away and whether it is a loan or a gift.
Think twice about opening a joint bank account. There are fewer risks if you’re the only one able to access your funds.
Get a receipt for every product and service.


Abridged
SOURCE:   The York Region
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Elder Abuse: 'Huge' and Growing Problem



28 January, 2013

As America's baby boomers age, far more seniors are being added to a vulnerable population. The number of victims is estimated at 2 million a year.
DAN SEWELL / The Associated Press
MASON, Ohio — She raised her hands to her snow-white hair in a gesture of bewilderment, then slowly lowered them to cover eyes filling with tears. The woman, in her 70s, is trying to explain how she wound up in a shelter that could well be where she spends the rest of her life.
Caregiver Kim Bauer navigates an elderly woman’s wheelchair at the Cedar Village retirement community in Mason, Ohio. The woman, who is in her 70s, was allegedly abused by a relative. Cases of elder abuse typically go undetected, experts say, because the abuse – often by family members – is not reported due to embarrassment or fear.
The Associated Press
An elderly woman watches "I Love Lucy" on a television inside her room at Cedar Village retirement community in Mason, Ohio. The Shalom Center, which is a part of the community, offers shelter, along with medical, psychological and legal help, to elderly abuse victims in this northern Cincinnati suburb. The center asked that this woman's identity be protected for this story because the close relatives who allegedly abused her don't know where she is.
The Associated Press

ELDER ABUSE CAN TAKE MANY FORMS

As many as 2 million older Americans are abused in various ways each year, experts estimate. The majority of cases are at the hands of relatives or other caregivers. Some of the forms, besides physical assault, that elder abuse can take:
• Inappropriate use of drugs and physical restraints.
• Treating the elderly person as if he or she were a small child.
• Failure to provide sufficient food, clothing, shelter, personal hygiene, medication, comfort or safety.
• Isolating the person from friends, family, other social activities.
• Deserting the person.
• Misusing the person’s funds, property and assets.
Source: New York City Mayor’s Office to Combat Domestic Violence

Abridged
SOURCE:       Portland Press Herald
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DISCLAIMER

Any Charges Reported on this blog are Merely Accusations and the Defendants are Presumed Innocent Unless and Until Proven Guilty.

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